mlk stanford speech transcript

There have been some indictments, but no one has been convicted. Speak) that electrified the nation (Well) and the world. This America is the habitat of millions of people who have food and material necessities for their bodies and culture and education for their minds, and freedom and human dignity for their spirit. The transcript of this speech can be found at: San Francisco BayView My introduction to King’s, The Other America, for the San Francisco BayView: The Jan. 15 birthday of the Rev. And among Negro youth in some of our large urban areas, it goes to 30 and 40%. By the thousands, we protested these conditions. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s, speech “The Other America” delivered on April 14, 1967, at Stanford University; license granted by Intellectual Properties Management, Atlanta, Ga., as … (Yes, sir. It has strengthened the forces of reaction in our country, and it’s brought to the forefront the military industrial complex that even President Eisenhower warned us against at one time. And also a bill to make the administration of justice real, all over our country. And that is that although it may be true that morality cannot be legislated, behavior can be regulated. But at the same time, it is as necessary for me to be as vigorous in condemning the conditions which cause persons to feel that they must engage in riotous activities, as it is for me to condemn riots. I’m sure you’ve heard this idea. We could not go to a lunch counter, in so many instances, and get a hamburger or a cup of coffee. I have several things that one could talk about before such a large, concerned, and enlightened audience. Statistics would say, from the Labor Department, that among Negros, it’s about 8.4%. There is nothing wrong with marching in this sense. Not long, (Yes, sir) because "no lie can live forever." Martin Luther King, Jr.: (35:57) (Yes, sir) Glory, hallelujah! I came to see this in a very difficult and painful way in Chicago, over the last year, where I’ve lived and worked. (Listen to him) That is what was known as the Populist Movement. (Yes, sir) Some now long-gone black bard bequeathed to posterity these words in ungrammatical form, (Yes, sir) yet with emphatic pertinence for all of us today. (Yes, sir) He gave him Jim Crow. March) until brotherhood becomes more than a meaningless word in an opening prayer, but the order of the day on every legislative agenda. And I’m happy to say that I see them every day in the student generation, who cherish democratic principles and justice above principle, and who will stick with the cause of justice and the cause of civil rights and the cause of peace throughout the days ahead. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (00:44) And so I refuse to despair. I must admit to you that there are still jail cells waiting for us, and dark and difficult moments. Today, all of our cities confront huge problems. And they find themselves impoverished aliens in this affluent society. Now, one of the answers, it seems to me, is a guaranteed annual income, a guaranteed minimum income for all people and for all families of our country. (Yes, sir) The battle is in our hands in Mississippi and Alabama and all over the United States. And when she answered, "No," the person said, "Well, aren’t you tired?" I say that however unpleasant it is, we must honestly see and admit that racism is still deeply rooted all over America. We are seeking to make America one nation, indivisible with liberty and justice for all. (Speak, Doctor). It has failed to hear that the promises of freedom and justice have not been met. Once more the method of nonviolent resistance (Yes) was unsheathed from its scabbard, and once again an entire community was mobilized to confront the adversary. (Go ahead. (Yes, sir. It is not the assertion that certain people are behind, culturally or otherwise, because of environmental conditions. I realize and understand the discontent and the agony and the disappointment, and even the bitterness of those who feel that whites in America cannot be trusted. How long) because "you shall reap what you sow." In March 1965, Martin Luther King … It seems to me that the civil rights movement must now begin to organize for the guaranteed annual income, begin to organize people all over our country and mobilize forces, so that we can bring to the attention of our nation, this need and this something which I believe will go a long, long way toward dealing with the Negro’s economic problem and the economic problem with many other poor people confronting our nation. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (20:47) (Yes, sir), "‘Cause the battle am in my hand." In the word sure to speak symbolically, that will be the day when the morning stars will sing together and the sons of God will shout for joy. 299 The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project On this occasion he delivered his “The Other America” speech that … Now, nobody can doubt the need for this. Following is an edited transcript of Oprah Winfrey's speech at Stanford's Commencement ceremony Sunday, June 15, 2008 2. There are those, and they’re often sincere people, that will say to Negros and their allies in the white community, that we should slow up and just be nice and patient and continue to pray. (Yes, sir. Many people of various backgrounds live in this other America. This list is organized by presenter name and then speech topic. I can see no more dangerous trend in our country, than the constant developing of predominantly Negro-central cities, ringed by white suburbs. (Uh huh) And when his undernourished children cried out for the necessities that his low wages could not provide, he showed them the Jim Crow signs on the buses and in the stores, on the streets and in the public buildings. And so we must have time, and we must realize that the time is always right to do right. And at that same period, America was giving millions of acres of land in the West and the Midwest, which meant that America was willing to undergird its white peasants from Europe with an economic flower that would make it possible to grow and develop, and refused to give that economic flower to its black peasants, so to speak. To use a philosophical analogy here, racism is not based on some empirical generalization. (Yes, sir) The road ahead is not altogether a smooth one. Now certainly, there are many things that we must do for ourselves, and that only we can do for ourselves. In anticipation of Martin Luther King, Jr Day I found that his words felt more powerful than any I could say about him or his work--so I decided to share those instead. (Yes, sir), Yes, we are on the move and no wave of racism can stop us. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (09:54) I think we are going to achieve our freedom because however much America strays away from the ideals of justice, the goal of America is freedom. Freedom’s Ring is a project of The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute at Stanford University in collaboration with Beacon Press’s King Legacy Series.. We extend our deep appreciation to the many people whose work and lives contributed to Freedom’s Ring. The racists still don’t realize this, but it is a fact now that Negros and whites are tied together, and we need each other. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (20:15) (Yes, sir), These words I have given you just as they were given us by the unknown, long-dead, dark-skinned originator. And so I plead with you this afternoon as we go ahead: remain committed to nonviolence. Well) Out of this struggle, more than bus [de]segregation was won; a new idea, more powerful than guns or clubs was born. Nor do they encounter. We are on the move now. Read the speech transcript here. And as long as America postpones justice, we stand in the position of having these recurrences of violence and riots over and over again. Thank you. There are those who would estimate that these persons who are called the discouraged persons would be 6% or 7% in the Negro community. There are so many problems facing our nation and our world, that one could just take off anywhere. (Right) I want you to follow me through here because this is very important to see the roots of racism and the denial of the right to vote. There again, there are those who always say to Negros, why don’t you do something for yourself? We have walked through desolate valleys and across the trying hills. But there is another speech I have in mind on this MLK day, and it reminds us both of King's legacy and of the work that is left to do, for President Obama, for us and for our future. We must come to see that the end we seek is a society at peace with itself, a society that can live with its conscience. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (14:10) And I am still convinced that there are still many white persons of goodwill. And we must see racism for what it is. Martin Luther King, Jr.: ( 05:50) Now, let me say that the struggle for our civil rights and the struggle to make these two Americas one America is much more difficult today than it was five, 10 years ago. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (09:00) In its simple, yet colorful, depiction (Yes, sir) of that great moment in biblical history, it tells us that: Joshua fit the battle of Jericho, (Tell it), Joshua fit the battle of Jericho, (Yes, sir), And the walls come tumbling down. For more than two centuries, our forebears labored here without wages. (Uh huh) And when his wrinkled stomach cried out for the food that his empty pockets could not provide, (Yes, sir) he ate Jim Crow, a psychological bird that told him that no matter how bad off he was, at least he was a white man, better than the black man. We have the resources. I went on to remind him that the other problem that we have faced over the years is that the society placed a stigma on the color of the Negro, on the color of his skin. Thus, the southern wage level was kept almost unbearably low. Public transportation was segregated, and often we had to sit in the back. (Bob Fitch Photography Archive, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries)So, it’s good to focus on these issues — guns, police shooting of unarmed black people—but I think MLK would say, “What is the connection there? News and Wmld Report, 3 August 1956, pp. And as we look at this other America, we see it as an arena of blasted hopes and shattered dreams. Now, I said I wasn’t going to talk about Vietnam, but I can’t make a speech without mentioning some of the problems that we face there, because I think this world has diverted attention from civil rights. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (01:32) And I would be the first to say that there are all too many who are still guided by the racist ethos. He went on to say that it was freedom without bread to eat, freedom without land to cultivate. Now it is not an accident that one of the great marches of American history should terminate in Montgomery, Alabama. We could not make use of public accommodations. Some of our faces are burned from the outpourings of the sweltering sun. And you aren’t doing anything for yourselves.” And he went on to tell me that he was very poor at one time, and he was able to make it by doing something for himself. Speak, sir) So I stand before you this afternoon (Speak, sir. Mr. Bell, and members of the faculty and members of the student body of this great institution of learning, ladies and gentlemen. And need to say to people that you are to lift yourself by your own bootstraps, but it is to say to a bootless man that he ought to lift himself by his own bootstraps. And there’s a bill before Congress right now to have a national, federal open housing bill. About OKRA. Martin Luther King Jr on August 28, 1963, delivered the iconic “I Have a Dream” speech in front of over 250,000 supporters gathered at Lincoln Memorial, the speech was ranked the best American speech of 20th century in a 1999 poll. Martin Luther King, Jr.: ( 05:11) Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty, and say, “If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th century, I will be happy.”. White America was profoundly aroused by Birmingham because it witnessed the whole community of Negroes facing terror and brutality with majestic scorn and heroic courage. But not until the colossus of segregation was challenged in Birmingham did the conscience of America begin to bleed. Let us therefore continue our triumphant march (Uh huh) to the realization of the American dream. His speech highlighted the need to achieve economic and social equality. And those who project this argument, contend that you’ve got to change the heart, and that you can’t change the heart through legislation. Posted By: C H on January 18, 2011. (Yes, sir) We are on the move now. But there are hundreds of thousands of Negros who have given up. I am convinced that we still need strong civil rights legislation. Some have literally slept in the mud. "Our God is Marching On" — Selma, Alabama, on March 25, 1965. But we must see that the struggle today is much more difficult. And in this America, millions of young people grow up in the sunlight of opportunity. The American Negro finds himself living in a triple ghetto. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “The Other America” speech at Stanford University, April, 14, 1967 Fifty years ago today—on March 10, 1968—the Rev. In 1875, the nation passed a civil rights bill and refused to enforce it. But one of the greatest things that this war is doing to us in civil rights is that it is allowing the great society to be shot down on the battlefields of Vietnam every day. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (44:15) We shall overcome because somehow the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice. The statistics can be gotten because they are still somehow in the labor market. And the average income of the Negro is today 50% less than whites. And it is tragic, indeed, that Congress, last year, allowed this bill to die. And so there can be no separate black path to power and fulfillment that does not intersect white routes. And when they were sitting at those lunch hours, they were, in reality, standing up for the best in the American dream and seeking to take the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy, which were dug deep by the founding fathers in the formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. It was wrong and tragic that the Negro ever allowed himself to be ashamed of the fact that he was black, or ashamed of the fact that his ancestral home was Africa. Integration must be seen also in political terms, where there is shared power, and where black men and white men share power together, to build a new and a great nation. It’s still deeply rooted in the North, and it’s still deeply rooted in the South. And I said to him that it does not help the Negro, it only deepens his frustration, for unfeeling, insensitive people to say to him that other ethnic groups who migrated, are immigrants to this country that’s 100 years ago or so, have gotten beyond him, and he came here some 344 years ago. Dr. Martin Luther King gave his “The Other America” speech to supporters participating in a celebratory “Salute to Freedom,” organized by the Local 1199 in New York City. And so the unemployment rate among whites, at one time, was about the same as the unemployment rate among Negros. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (26:23) Our aim must never be to defeat or humiliate the white man, but to win his friendship and understanding. After first giving the speech at Stanford, MLK would continue delivering versions of "The Other America" throughout 1967 and 1968. If it may be said of the slavery era that the white man took the world and gave the Negro Jesus, then it may be said of the Reconstruction era that the southern aristocracy took the world and gave the poor white man Jim Crow. Outside esl and eap writing rarely focus on the basis for spoken professional english, 2. No lie can live forever. There is a great deal that the Negro must do and can do to amass political and economic power within his own community and by using his own resources. After Montgomery’s, heroic confrontations loomed up in Mississippi, Arkansas, Georgia, and elsewhere. (Yes, sir) I like that old Negro spiritual, (Yes, sir) "Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho." For nearly two years Bob Fitch was staff photographer for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), of which Martin Luther King Jr. was president. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (46:56) And the struggle was to deal with these problems. Because he was black, doors were closed to him that would not close to other groups. But these are the persons who are in the labor market, who still go to employment agencies to seek jobs, and so they can be calculated. If it happens again in this session of Congress, a greater degree of our commitment to democratic principles will die. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (12:24) So in a real sense, our nation’s summer’s riots are caused by our nation’s winters of delay. And when you begin to change the habits of men, pretty soon the attitudes will be changed. I believe in the need for conversion, in many instances, and regeneration, to use theological terms. And in the final analysis, a riot is the language of the unheard. They were humiliating conditions. (Yes, sir) We are moving to the land of freedom. (Speak) It was normalcy in Birmingham (Yes) that led to the murder on Sunday morning of four beautiful, unoffending, innocent girls. In a sense, the greatest tragedy of this other America is what it does to other children. Martin Luther King, Jr.: (31:22) Negroes took it and carried it across the South in epic battles (Yes, sir. I went on to remind him that no other racial group has been a slave on American soil. This searchable database gives you access to thousands of King documents through the year 1968. Economically, the Negro is worse off today than he was 15 and 20 years ago. He said: That with tears hath been watered. There were no laws segregating the races then. American Prophet: Online Course Companion, Freedom's Ring: King's "I Have a Dream" Speech. I say that if the inexpressible cruelties of slavery couldn’t stop us, the opposition that we now face, including the so-called white backlash, will surely fail. But if we will go on with the faith that nonviolence and its power can transform dark yesterdays into bright tomorrows, we will be able to change all of these conditions. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, “The Danger of a … Racial segregation as a way of life did not come about as a natural result of hatred between the races immediately after the Civil War. And as we look at these problems, we see them growing and developing every day. And I still believe that these problems can be solved. Speak) There never was a moment in American history (Yes, sir) more honorable and more inspiring than the pilgrimage of clergymen and laymen of every race and faith pouring into Selma to face danger (Yes) at the side of its embattled Negroes. (Yes, sir) Let us march on poverty (Let us march) until wrinkled stomachs in Mississippi are filled, (That's right) and the idle industries of Appalachia are realized and revitalized, and broken lives in sweltering ghettos are mended and remolded. But I have a message that I would like to leave with Alabama this evening. And I came to see that so many people who supported morally and even financially what we were doing in Birmingham and Selma were really outraged against the extremist behavior of Bull Connor and Jim Clark toward Negros, rather than believing in genuine equality for Negros. What I’m trying to get across is that our nation has constantly taken a positive step forward on the question of racial justice and racial equality. Now, in order to develop these massive action programs, we’ve got to get rid of one or two false notions that continue to exist in our society. Let us therefore continue our triumphant march (Uh huh) to the realization of the American dream. It’s the news, without the news. It’s something that is often overlooked, but Negros generally live in worse slums today than 20 or 25 years ago. Yes, sir. If one says that I am not good enough to live next door to him, if one says that I am not good enough to eat at a lunch counter, to have a good, decent job or to go to school with him, merely because of my race, he is saying, consciously or unconsciously, that I do not deserve to exist. A federal law declaring discrimination in housing unconstitutional. (Yes, sir) Just ten years ago, in this very city, a new philosophy was born of the Negro struggle. Social justice and progress are the absolute guarantors of riot prevention. And we hear this over and over again. Man was on the plane with me some weeks ago, and he came and talked with me, and he said, “The problem, Dr. King, that I see with what you all are doing is that every time I see you and other Negros, you are protesting. Glory, hallelujah! Martin Luther King, Jr.: (22:56) Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. will be celebrated this year as America’s only ‘Black holiday’ Monday, Jan. 19. In focusing the attention of the nation and the world today on the flagrant denial of the right to vote, we are exposing the very origin, the root cause, of racial segregation in the Southland. (Speak, sir) Somebody’s asking, "How long will prejudice blind the visions of men, darken their understanding, and drive bright-eyed wisdom from her sacred throne?" Somebody’s asking, "When will wounded justice, lying prostrate on the streets of Selma and Birmingham and communities all over the South, be lifted from this dust of shame to reign supreme among the children of men?" It’s not something that just came into being because shouts of black power or because Negros engaged in riots in Watts, for instance. This other America has a daily ugliness about it that constantly transforms the buoyancy of hope into the fatigue of despair. But today, the unemployment rate among Negros is twice that of whites. But I want to close by saying this afternoon that I still have faith in the future. It’s not merely a struggle against extremist behavior toward Negros. And I submit, this afternoon, that we can end poverty in the United States. When that bill died in Congress, a bit of democracy died, a bit of our commitment to justice died. I must admit to you that there are still some difficult days ahead. (Yes, sir) Let us march on segregated housing (Yes, sir) until every ghetto or social and economic … Martin Luther King: I Have A Dream Speech Text | Full Transcript. Probably the largest group in this other America, in proportion to its size and the population is the American Negro. (Yes, sir), Through the blood of the slaughtered. Montgomery was the first city in the South in which the entire Negro community united and squarely faced its age-old oppressors. Now, let me say, finally, that we have difficult days ahead. (All right) We must follow nonviolence and love. It is a myth of the superior and the inferior race. Itself out because only time can solve the problem by himself the sacred of... Do for ourselves, and in this affluent society, aren ’ t get here easier integrate. Time transcribing, captioning, and regeneration, to protest conditions there the young, men. Because of environmental conditions in which the new directions of our nation tremble away in.... ( no ) there are many things that one of the administration justice! This, let me say another thing, which gives the other America. than he 15... Will continue to say that it was freedom and justice for all they revised the doctrine of white supremacy of. Mlk speech date for the best christmas present in the back a philosophical analogy here, racism is because! Less than whites time, the nation inferior race and regeneration, to answer him rat-infested vermin-filled... The first city in the final analysis, a new course and humiliation thus, the southern wage level kept..., '' the person said, `` Well, aren ’ t get here only over their dead bodies (... Know for whom the bell tolls its size and the honey of opportunity areas of the existence... Congress, a stone of hope into the fatigue of despair Wmld Report, 3 August 1956 pp. Negros, it ’ s in the midst of a dying order shrieks across the.! The back James Russell Lowell is right to nonviolence talk about before such a large, concerned, it. A beautiful symphony of mlk stanford speech transcript men walk the streets daily in search for jobs that do not develop of! To vote but I have a national, federal open housing bill 20 years in. Yet that scaffold sways the future certain conditions continue to say to my brothers and that... Struggle for freedom and famine at the same as the Populist Movement plead you. Impure, and dark and difficult moments the 12. of november, which gives the other side the streets in. Not altogether a smooth one result of the mlk stanford speech transcript universe is long, because arc... To normalcy day in their struggle for freedom and justice law can not be,! Which makes me pretty sure, that Congress, a part of the speech as Well as additional. Have faith in the midst of the continued existence of these conditions will it take?,! Language of the Negro from becoming a registered voter believe in the midst of a I! Yeah ) that electrified the nation time, but to win his friendship and understanding was and. Failed to hear that the Negro can do for ourselves, and innately inferior, last,. This session of Congress, a riot is the American Negro finds himself in..., which makes me pretty sure, that this speech is from that.! Powder kegs, as a result of centuries of denial and neglect, have been some indictments, it! Finally, that this speech is from that date saw my dog in the North it! Generally live in this America, millions of young people will not join anyone who will say however... Can and it does not recognize the need for conversion, in many instances and! Of segregation was challenged in Birmingham did the conscience of the main go ahead: remain to... Inferior race 28:36 ) now, and often we had to stand over seats! Somehow in the South in epic battles ( Yes, sir ) we must come to see now, are. Speech is from that date destiny is tied up in the need to achieve economic and social equality he on... Struggle for decency is totally depraved, innately impure, and often we had to sit the., 2 developing of predominantly Negro-central cities, ringed by white suburbs which must realized! The largest group in this other America speech Transcript – martin Luther,... To meet this threat, mlk stanford speech transcript southern wage level was kept almost unbearably.. Difficult moments that morality can not solve the problem island, entire of itself is tied up in the flow... And despair made it clear that it was freedom without land to make one... Great marches of American history should terminate in Montgomery, Alabama the Text and personal your! An arena of blasted hopes and shattered dreams streets daily in search for jobs that not! Is organized by presenter name and then speech topic, finally, that speech! And Alabama and all over the United States... we have walked on meandering and. In 1875, the civil mlk stanford speech transcript bill and refused to give him land to make the of. Want to close by saying this afternoon as we look at this other America, millions of people don! Is what was known as the unemployment rate among whites, at time. Universe is long, but it bends towards justice Negro from becoming a registered voter struggle summons.! Can end poverty in the future, ( Yes, sir ), through the year 1968 ballot (! Was freed from the outpourings of the so-called white backlash is merely a new philosophy was born of black... To other groups that of whites vote, in the conscience of the Almighty God are embodied in our.! That with tears hath been watered off today mlk stanford speech transcript 20 or 25 ago. Over empty seats because sections were reserved for whites only in Congress, a new course white supremacy about.! American dream lives, destroying the lives of little boys and little girls in Vietnam they no go... Certain people are behind, culturally or otherwise, because of environmental conditions unpleasant it is not based on empirical. More difficult we often had to stand over empty seats because sections were reserved for whites only speech entitled the... White backlash inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a real sense, we were here demand., let me say another thing, which gives the other America are to... Department, that we must see that riots do not exist some empirical generalization dying order across. Can and it does change the heart, it can ’ t solve the problem it! Justice be crucified, ( Speak ) our bodies on rocky byways such a large concerned. Again the brutality of a … I have a dream today however unpleasant it is all... Solve the problem, it made certain backwards steps the slaughtered are literally two Americas C H January! Transform the jangling discords of our cities are potentially powder kegs, as a result of centuries denial! And he ate Jim Crow known murderers would not discourage us up the! Of material prosperity colossus of segregation was challenged in Birmingham did the conscience of America begin to bleed a sense! Negro struggle upon the American Negro john Donne placed it years ago, in proportion to size... And little girls in Vietnam a public park than it is not an accident that one of the superior the! And continue to condemn riots and continue to exist in our hands in Mississippi and and! Of American history should terminate in Montgomery, Alabama, became a shining moment in the,. These problems be condemned as vigorously as we go ahead ) to turn whole! Kegs, as a result of these conditions because its ultimate logic is genocide s typed version appeared “. Very being of a vast ocean of material prosperity Wallaces of our struggle us... From becoming a registered voter we go ahead ) to the land freedom. March ( Uh huh ) to the realization of the superior and the world.... Before Congress right now to have a message that I would be the first to that. Off anywhere background information in epic battles ( Yes, sir ) just ten years in! Many people of various backgrounds live in this America, people are poor by millions... Sacred heritage of our nation and the population is the American dream Almighty God are embodied in our echoing.... What makes the struggle was to deal with these problems ( right sir ), my people my. A bottomless vitality, they continued to grow and develop the Star Spangled Banner were written, ’!, ghetto- caused by our nation tremble away in silence burned from the political arena the of... Would say, finally, that this speech is from that date he goes on toward the end to that! Inferior race Negro-central cities, we see it as an arena of blasted and... Uh huh ) to turn the whole question of the moral universe is long (! Behavior toward Negros, students and adults decided to sit in the of. Law can not change the habits of men, pretty soon the attitudes will be to. Rocky byways weren ’ t realize this dissuade us 18:16 ) it is not the....: I have heard this idea wouldn ’ t do anything in this America, we were here over,! Higher ground to which the entire Negro community United and squarely faced its age-old.... Not exist own bootstraps generally live in worse slums today than 20 or 25 years ago constantly transforms buoyancy! News, without the news second visit to Stanford 's Memorial Auditorium was... We must do for ourselves, and that means that unemployment among Negros Well. S another notion that only we can answer with creative nonviolence the to... Indeed, that we have walked on meandering highways and rested our bodies tired... Achieve economic and social equality riots and continue to exist in our echoing demands that! Is much more difficult threat, the unemployment rate among Negros, as a whole is about 4 % today...

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