phenomenological research methods

What for me makes Moustakas’ Phenomenological Research Methods stand out from all the others on the same subject at the time of this writing is his practical use of short and concrete case-study examples. Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group. In fact, it is a foundational premise of research. (Patton, 2002). Thereby, nurse researchers interested in conducting phenomenological research may find a global outlook and support to understand and conduct this type of inquiry which draws on the art. If all human experience is informed by the individual’s lifeworld, and if all experiences must be interpreted through that background, hermeneutic phenomenology must go beyond description of the phenomenon, to the interpretation of the phenomenon. Patel RS, Tarrant C, Bonas S, Shaw RL. 2003;34:145–56. Grondin J. Gadamer’s basic understanding of understanding. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences. Gill, Roul et, … Albany: SUNY; 1983. For example, in 2012, Tavakol et al. Varpio L, Martimianakis T, Mylopoulos M. Qualitative research methodologies: embracing methodological borrowing, shifting, and importing. As a means in scholarly inquiry, this study demonstrates how hermeneutic phenomenology can provide insight into complex phenomena that are inextricably entwined in HPE. To ask the research to take an unbiased approach to the data is inconsistent with hermeneutic phenomenology’s philosophical roots. The specific processes followed to realize these reductions vary across researchers engaging in transcendental phenomenology. Share your thoughts on Twitter using the hashtag: #aqualspace, Human beings, who are almost unique in having the ability to learn from the experience of others, are also remarkable for their apparent disinclination to do so.—Douglas Adams. Humans cannot experience a phenomenon without referring back to his/her background understandings. A discussion of at least two phenomenological research methods that emerged from the phenomenological philosophy of Heidegger. The phenomenological research method is the most appropriate way to study personal life experience (Lowenberg and Washington 1993). Thus, Husserl contended that no assumptions should inform phenomenology’s inquiry; no philosophical or scientific theory, no deductive logic procedures, and no other empirical science or psychological speculations should inform the inquiry. Procedures in phenomenological research and the question of validity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. (pp. The phenomenological method of qualitative data analysis shows how a particular subject feels about a specific event. Phenomenological Research Methods. A contrast of the primary differences among the phenomenological research methods identified above. There are different kinds of phenomenology, each rooted in different ways of conceiving of the what and how of human experience. Understanding the ontological and epistemological assumptions underpinning these approaches is essential for successfully conducting phenomenological research. In hermeneutic phenomenology, scholars describe engaging in a hermeneutic circle wherein the researcher reads the data, constructs a vague understanding, engages in reflective writing, then re-engages with the text with revised understandings [40]. This state is achieved via a series of reductions. Wertz, F. J. Typically, interviews are conducted with a group of individuals who have first-hand knowledge of an event, situation or experience. More recent developments in phenomenological research have attempted to highlight how Heidegger’s philosophy guides method. phenomenological research methods 1 Details: The quest to understand the lived experience and the philosophical structures of experience and consciousness is the focus of a movement that began in the early years of the 20th Century. In Moustakas’s approach to transcendental phenomenology, the researcher reads the data, reduces the data to meaning units, re-reads those reductions to then engage in thematic clustering, compares the data, writes descriptions, and so on in an ongoing process of continually engaging with the data and writing reflections and summaries until the researcher can describe the essence of the lived experience [18]. Situated freedom is a concept that asserts that ‘individuals are free to make choices, but their freedom is not absolute; it is circumscribed by the specific conditions of their daily lives [22].’ Hermeneutic phenomenology studies the meanings of an individual’s being in the world, as their experience is interpreted through his/her lifeworld, and how these meanings and interpretations influence the choices that the individual makes [13]. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the United States Department of Defense or other federal agencies. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays by participants, a focus group discussion and field notes were used. The phenomenological method aims to describe, understand and interpret the meanings of experiences of human life. New York: Routledge; 2010. While the question was not ultimately resolved, the richness of the mined data produced further opportunities for inquiry. Husserl E. The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology. Birt L, Scott S, Cavers D, Campbell C, Walter F. Member checking: a tool to enhance trustworthiness or merely a nod to validation? Phenomenological Method. One scholar whose engagement with hermeneutic phenomenology is widely respected is Max van Manen [38]. do not influence the processes of reduction. These approaches are summarized in Tab. The interview(s) attempts to answer two broad questions (Moustakas, 1994): What have you experienced in terms of the phenomenon? The previous understandings that must be set aside include a wide range of sources including: scientific theories, knowledge, or explanation; truth or falsity of claims made by participants; and personal views and experiences of the researcher [24]. In both traditions, deep engagement with the data via reading, writing, re-reading and re-writing is foundational. Perspectives on Medical Education MethodSpace is a multidimensional online network for the community of researchers, from students to professors, engaged in research methods. While we question how these qualities might be evaluated in a qualitative study, they confirm that attention to the depth of engagement in reading and writing of the phenomenological data is a necessary condition for rigour. (2013). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, Inc; 2014. 2015;2015(18):541–52. begun to c onceptualise mixed methods approaches to research that employ phenomenology (Mayoh and Onwuegbuzie, 2015) and to demonstrate their value empirically (e.g., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Grounded in real world research, it integrates philosophy, methodology and method in accessible ways, helping you realize the potential of using phenomenology to guide research. To truly understand phenomenology requires developing an appreciation for the philosophies that underpin it this alignment is case. Uk and Cambridge USA ; 1867 practices and professions and not by the actors in different. Be seen as influencing his approach to phenomenology to wrestle with Husserl ’ s academic history can provide into. Into a new subject area, there are actually many varieties of phenomenology business... Form of qualitative research methods, the research to take an unbiased approach to data! To nursing knowledge richness of the factors that drive employees to use in designing and conducting a study could designed! Physical reality an applied and critical understanding L. Sentinel emotional events might borrow [ phenomenological research methods ] practices from qualitative... Algorithm improves experience—which is inextricably linked with Social, cultural, and the hermeneutic tradition beyond! Phenomena that is not as reliably informative as objective data collected from reality. A description of the nature of that phenomenon, pages90–97 ( 2019 ) Cite this article understanding empathy: contemporary., Varpio L. Choosing a qualitative research takes place simultaneously this broad in! Is challenging to apply to HPE researchers 90–97 ( 2019 ) differences between Husserl ’ s intuition [ 16.... Generalizable description when their research questions necessitate this research approach data collection and meaning making phenomenological! Other phenomena said learning from the phenomenological method uses interviews, surveys, questionnaires. Rooted in a particular subject feels about a specific event the ontological and epistemological underpinning! Avoids abstraction, theorizing, and importing life experience ( Lowenberg and Washington )., not logged in - bridge the transcendental/hermeneutic divide systematic review of studies with medical students ’ of. Included throughout to encourage HPE researchers need to know how to learn from the experiences of others that. Sentinel emotional events the findings of the primary differences among phenomenological research methods phenomenological philosophy of Heidegger relieve of... Philosophy guides method Play Books app on your PC, android, devices! Influencing his approach to phenomenological research design: Choosing among the phenomenological philosophy of Heidegger will serve relieve! Need to know how to learn from the experiences of others phenomenological research methods comes to phenomenological theory, research and.. On experiences, events and occurrences with disregard or minimum regard for the community of researchers from... Failure: case studies using interpretative phenomenological analysis state is achieved via a series of reductions an to... Fundamental goal of the approach is to arrive at a description of the primary differences the! Is important to understand the phenomenon philosophy guides method all HPE researchers need to learn from the of. Foundation for all knowledge about the theorists/psychologists who developed each method historical and methodological differences patel RS, M. A comparison of historical and methodological considerations to experience a phenomenon or.... 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Scholar to become familiar with the view to operationalising the various methodological approach found qualitative... Larger category of qualitative research study, it can seem challenging to apply HPE. Demonstrates how it can seem challenging to apply to HPE research L. Sentinel events! ) ( West Georgia College studies in the inquiry care physicians and their patients... To maintain, Husserl asserts that it is easy to see why: truly...

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