kelud volcano eruption 2007

The last Kelud eruption was in 1990, killing more than 30 people and injured hundreds. Kelud, as officials continue to monitor volcanic activity from the East Java volcano. [27] Two people were reported dead after their houses collapsed from the weight of ash. Almost all recorded eruption is of short duration (2 days or less) and the type of explosive (VEI max. Late on February 13, 2014, the Indonesian volcano Kelut (also called Kelud) exploded with a powerful eruption. The crater filled with water during the rainy season.[2][3]. A resident clears volcanic ash on the road of Kediri in East Java province following the eruption of Mount Kelud volcano on February 14, 2014. Kelud high alert remains", "Mass evacuation in Indonesia as Java volcano erupts", CIMSS Satellite Blog, Eruption of the Kelut volcano in Java, Indonesia. [38] By early March most of the 12,304 buildings destroyed or damaged during the eruptions had been repaired, at an estimated cost of Rp 55 billion (US$5.5 million). [6] Many villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the eruption. Curated pages dedicated to humanitarian themes and specific humanitarian crises. The overnight eruption of Java island's Mount Kelud could be heard up to 125 miles away, Indonesia's disaster agency said. Kelud Volcano - Oct 2007 Maps and Infographics, Indonesia: Mt. At the place of the 2007 lava dome, a crater of about … Mount Kelud Erupted Over 30 Times in the Past Millennium. [31], On February 14, 2014, major tourist attractions in Yogyakarta and Central Java, including Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko, were closed to visitors, after being severely affected by the volcanic ashfall from the eruption of Kelud volcano a day earlier, in East Java, located around 200 kilometers east from Yogyakarta. Read about the 2007 eruption here. [6] Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built (top and bottom) on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain completely) the water of the crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard. NEW YORK, USA, 19 October 2007 - Over 100,000 people have been evacuated from the region within 10 km of Mt. This pattern brings experts volcano on 15 years cycle for this eruption. In the 20th century, Kelud eruption recorded in 1901, 1919 (May 1), 1951, 1966 and 1990 In 2007 the mountain was again increased its activity. Access your account or create a new one for additional features or to post job or training opportunities. [5] More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people. Threat of volcanic eruption is life as usual in Indonesia. Kelud volcano, a stratovolcano with summit elevation of 1731 m above sea level, is considered to be one of the most dangerous volcanoes in Java, Indonesia. [29] Financial losses from the airport closures were valued in the billions of rupiah (millions of US dollars), including an estimated 2 billion rupiah (US$200,000) at Juanda International Airport in Surabaya. Open training opportunities in the humanitarian field. 2007-08 Eruption Activity increased at Kelut volcano in August 2007. Kelud Erupts - Official,", Indra Harsaputra, "Scientist: Indonesian Volcano's Erupting,", "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official,", Karima Anjani, "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official,", Irwan Firdaus, "Thousands Defy Indonesia Volcano Warning,", Irwan Firdaus, "Crater Temperature at Indonesia Volcano Up,", "'Island' Emerges in Indonesian Volcano Crater,", "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Spews Ash and Lava,", "Erupai Kelud Ciptakan Kawah Bediameter 400 Meter", "Terjemahan Kakawin Dēśawarṇnana (Nāgarakṛtāgama)", "The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia", "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Soloraya Tertutup Hujan Abu Pekat", "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Hujan Pasir Terasa Hingga Malang Blitar", "Cleanup begins after eruption of Indonesian volcano", "7 Bandara Ditutup, 76.388 Jiwa Mengungsi Akibat Erupsi Kelud", "With Mount Kelud Quieter, Airports and Towns Start the Big Clean-Up", "Borobudur, Other Sites, Closed After Mount Kelud Eruption", "Kelud Ashes Cause Yogyakarta Tourism to Decline", "Buildings in Mt. Smoke rose more than two kilometres (1.2 miles) into the air, and ash dusted several villages around the volcano. [26] Seven airports, in Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Surabaya, Malang, Semarang, Cilacap and Bandung, were closed. The lava dome, which had expanded to 250 metres (270 yd) long and 120 metres (130 yards) high, cracked open and lava began oozing into the surrounding water. Ashfall occurred over a large portion of Java island, from Malang to the west, as well as Central Java and Yogyakarta. [35] Ash from Yogyakarta was disposed in the depressions of fields in four villages located 5-10 km from Yogyakarta. The website of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters has great annotated satellite images showing the volcano before and after the eruption as well as the extensive ash and lahar deposits. Kelud increased activities endangers half a million people while additional aid for 1,000 families on the way to Bengkulu Earthquake victims, Indonesia: Mount Kelud Volcano, East Java (as of 17 Oct 2007) - Location Map, Indonesia: Mt. Indonesian military personnel used water cannons to clear roads, and were later involved in reconstruction efforts in the areas surrounding Kelud. Kelud volcano erupts frequently, with the most recent eruption occurred on November 3, 2007. Earlier this month, at least 17 people were killed when Mount Sinabung volcano erupted in North Sumatra. Find help on how to use the site, read terms and conditions, view the FAQs and API documentation. Kelud Volcano - Oct 2007 Updates, Overview Map of Mt. On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption. On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption. [9] But by early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption that day had not been very large at all. SUGIHWARAS, Indonesia, Nov 3 (Reuters) - Indonesia’s Mount Kelud volcano has erupted, according to seismographic signals, but no signs of ash or … "The Future Danger of Mt. [36] Political parties vying for the April elections helped distribute food to victims of the eruptions. Kelut volcano's lava dome in 2007: One of the most impressive lava dome eruptions in recent years. More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 AD. Seismologists monitoring the crater said surface temperatures in Mount Kelud's crater lake rose on November 4 to 60.7 °C (141.3 °F) from 43.9 °C (111.0 °F) on November 3. A stop date with " (continuing)" indicates that the eruption was considered to be ongoing as of the date indicated. If an explosive eruption will burst the new lava dome, it may cause a lot of deaths and damage, because of the village in that area. [14], The following day, a lava dome rose through the centre of the crater lake atop the mountain. But in 2007, the eruption was effusive. The eruption sent volcanic ash covering an area of about 500 kilometres (310 mi) in diameter, with the total ejectus estimated at 120,000,000 to 160,000,000 cubic metres (4.2×109 to 5.7×109 cu ft) being a VEI 4 eruption. We calculated the rates of seismic energy release at Kelud volcano, Indonesia, preceding both the 2007 effusive lava-dome eruption and the 2014 Plinian eruption. Eruptions in Kelud before 2007 were explosive. ", This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 17:26. The eruption history of Kelud is quite unique in Indonesian history, because it was one of the few volcanoes whose activities were recorded in Indonesian historical accounts. Two people have been crushed to death after a volcanic eruption blanketed rooftops with rocks and ash, causing homes to cave in, an official said on February 14. The eruption was confirmed by the Indonesian government's Centre for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. A volcanic eruption of Mount Kelud on Indonesia's Java Island sparked a mass evacuation of over 200,000 people, with two reportedly dead following the blast. Kelud Volcano, Java, Indonesia (as of 18 Oct 2007), Indonesia: Volcano - Mount Kelud (as of 19 Oct 2007), View all Indonesia: Mt. [9] Although local inhabitants were ordered to leave their homes in mid-October, many either did not evacuate or returned in the interim. Closed-circuit television cameras showed the 100-metre (330 ft) long oblong island had pushed about 20 metres (66 ft) above the surface of the lake. On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as "lahars"). [37], The volcano's alert status was downgraded on 21 February, and the exclusion zone reduced from 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi). [30] Significant damage was caused to a variety of manufacturing and agricultural industries. Indonesia sits on a belt of intense seismic activity known as the Pacific Ring of Fire [AFP] 17 Oct 2007 [27][34] Citizens did likewise, although with less powerful equipment. Magma dome already visible in Mt Kelud’s crater lake, scientists say. [27] By February 20 most businesses and attractions which had closed owing to the ashfall had reopened, although cleaning operations were still ongoing. [11] "The eruption isn't over," Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesian Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Agency, said. Close to half a million people remain vulnerable to very possible eruption of Mount Kelud, in East Java. Data is reported through the last data update (10 December 2020). Based on the 2007 experience, the approach of the Army and the police in the Kelud eruption has been one of policing, which is intimidating, rather than … ), 1716, 1752, 1756 (? A strong and explosive eruption on early February 1990 produced a seven-kilometer-high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. However, volcanologists concluded that the Kelud Volcano could potentially have a catastrophic eruption. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history. More than thirty people were killed. In the 20th century, Kelud eruption recorded in 1901, 1919 (May 1), 1951, 1966 and 1990 In 2007 the mountain was again increased its activity. A glowing lava dome, which formed during a 2007 Mount Kelud eruption. Open job opportunities in the humanitarian field. [32] Owing to the ash, many tourists cancelled their reservations at hotels throughout Central Java. The 2014 eruption destroyed a dome emplaced in the volcano's caldera during the previous eruption in 2007 (BGVN 33:03 and 33:07). Every day especially on the weekend there are many visitors come to location, so it is essential to find out the elements in ... tourists showed up after the eruption in 2007 … When Kelud last erupted in 1990, at least 30 people were killed, while an eruption in 1919 killed about 5,000 as it ejected scalding water from its crater lake. The 2007 eruption occurred 17 years after the last eruption in 1990. "The eruption sounded like … 5 November 2007 17:00 (GMT+7) - The Mount Kelud volcano is dangerously close to an eruption on Monday as magma was pushing upwards through the blocked crater, causing boiling water to spill down it's slopes, according a volcanologist. Latest humanitarian reports, maps and infographics and full document archive. Kelud Volcano OCHA Situation Report No. [34], Media related to Kelud at Wikimedia Commons, Thouret, et al., "Origin, Characteristics, and Behavior of Lahars Following the 1990 Eruption of Kelud Volcano, Eastern Java (Indonesia),", Karmini, "Indonesian Volcano Threatens to Erupt,", Retnowati, "Indonesia's Volcano Mt. Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is an active stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia. [8][9] Although no visual confirmation was possible when the eruption began because the volcano's peak was shrouded by clouds, Indonesian government volcanologists said seismic readings showed an eruption was under way. Mount Kelud last erupted in 1990 and statistics show another eruption is now two years overdue, Surono, a leading volcanologist at the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources, said last month. There were 81 confirmed eruptions at some point during 2007 from 76 different volcanoes; 36 of those were new eruptions that started during the year. Boiling water cascaded down the flanks of the mountain from the crater lake, and seismological equipment near the crater ceased working. [6][9] More than 350,000 people lived within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of the volcano. Kelud volcano erupts frequently, with the most recent eruption occurred on November 3, 2007. Many historic eruptions of Kelud, with the notable exception of the passive lava dome eruption of 2007, are characterized by short durations, high explosivity and large volumes of tephra. 2007 eruption. [15], But after 48 hours of smoke and ash but no lava, Indonesian officials declared on November 8 that no eruption was immediate. BANDUNG, Indonesia (Reuters) - Indonesia’s Mount Kelud volcano, which was put on the country’s second-highest alert level last month, shows several alarming signs indicating it may erupt, … ), 1771, 1776, 1785, 1811, 1825, 1826, 1835, 1848, 1849 (? Mount Kelud is one of the most active volcanoes on the island of Java, in today’s Indonesia. [16], By November 12, Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake. 4), except in 1990 and 2007 eruptions. Tempo reported that hotels in Yogyakarta had posted losses of Rp 22 billion (US$2.2 million) as more than 80 percent of reservations were canceled owing to the ash. List of organizations that are actively providing ReliefWeb with content. At a depth of 15 metres (49 ft), the temperature jumped to 66.1 degrees Celsius on November 4 from 45.9 degrees Celsius on November 3. We advocate for effective and principled humanitarian action by all, for all. [33], Flow-up following the eruptions had begun by 15 February. Apple orchards in Batu, East Java, posted losses of up to Rp 17.8 billion, while the dairy industry in the province posted high losses. [18], Kelud erupted on February 13, 2014. [7], Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, November 3, 2007. Disaster risk awareness among the communities were low when volcanic activity of Kelud was raised in 2007. February 13th, 2014, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kelud&oldid=994424366, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Brand, E.W. ), 1864, 1901, 1919, 1920, 1951, 1966, 1967, 1990, Oct-Nov 2007, 13 Feb 2014 Nov. 9, 2007; KALI BLADAR, Indonesia — For more than a month, Ibu Suwarni's life was on hold, as Mount Kelud… By Peter Gelling. ), 1641 (sub-Plininan eruption? [13], On November 5, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the crater. In the … The water level in … (1984) "Landslides in Southeast Asia: A State-of-the-Art Report." [4] This account also describes the local Javanese psyche at that time (and even up to present) that regarded the natural event such as volcanic eruption, as the divine sign from the gods. Since 1000 CE, Kelud has had approximately 40 eruptions (Siebert et al., 2014). C.Pre eruption of the 20th Century The first and oldest effort in recorded history to overcome Kelud lava is building spatula. According to Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 4 and 5 (composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365), King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit was born in 1256 Saka, which corresponds to 1334 CE, the same year that Mount Kelud erupted. [20][21][22] The eruption occurred at 22:50 local time (UT+7). Kelud volcano eruptions: 1500 (? Seismological equipment near the volcano's crater was still operating, and scientists said that indicated a small eruption at best. [17] The ashfall meant companies such as Unilever Indonesia had difficulty distributing their products throughout affected areas. ), 1548, 1586 ((sub-)Plinian eruption? Kelud shadow rise from ashes", "Airport, temples reopen but Mt. [23][24][25][26] The eruption prompted about 76,000 inhabitants to evacuate their homes. Meanwhile, communities around Kelud were unable to learn from the 1919 experience and subsequent eruptions. Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, November 3, 2007. Indonesian authorities said about 25,000 people remained in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders. Thousands of residents ordered to evacuate after warnings about Mount Kelud eruption. RW COVID-19 page: Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses. The hot lava dome occupied the lake crater and, consequently, the lake disappeared. Workers covered the iconic stupas and statues of Borobudur temple to protect the structure from volcanic ash. OCHA coordinates the global emergency response to save lives and protect people in humanitarian crises. An earthquake crisis in October 2007 was followed by formation of a lava dome. It was expected to be similar in eruptive style, with explosions, a high eruptive plume, ash falls, pyroclastic flows and surges, and lahars. According to BNPB in a report issued on 18 February 2014, ~7 people were killed and ~100,000 evacuated. ReliefWeb Labs projects explore new and emerging opportunities to improve information delivery to humanitarians. On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption. Table 2. [16] On November 14, smoke billowed 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) into the air, and light ash covered villages 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away. [10], However, early Sunday morning, November 4, Mount Kelud spewed ash 500 metres into the air, indicating a full eruption was taking place. This pattern brings experts volcano on … It is an active volcano with its last eruption in ... Kelud”, but now after eruption the crater of Kelud mountain is main attraction in location. Surabaya, Indonesia's third-largest urban area and home to one of the country's busiest airports, is 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the northwest. In early February 1990, a strong and explosive eruption … Indonesia is located on the western side of the so-called Pacific Rim of Fire, an arc of volcanoes and geologic fault lines surrounding the Pacific Basin. List of alerts, ongoing and past disasters covered by ReliefWeb. The eruption at Kelud (Kelut) has rapidly become another humanitarian crisis for Indonesia. Officials said the volcano was experiencing a "slow eruption" and was unlikely to explode as it had done many times in the past century. Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses, Major Natural Disaster in Indonesia During 2007, Indonesia: Slow motion volcano tests disaster preparedness, View all Indonesia: Mt. The volcano continued to emit smoke, with plumes reaching a kilometre (3,280 feet, or six-tenths of a mile) into the atmosphere. Workers continued to construct the Ampera Tunnel despite the still-hot (90–400 °C or 200–800 °F) pyroclastic flow deposits which reached as high as 25 m (80 ft) and buried the tunnel's mouth. In, Zen, M.T., and Hadikusumo, Djajadi. An elderly man also died from inhaling the ash, [28] The ash also reportedly reached the western region of Java by February 14 afternoon, where traces of volcanic ash were found in Bandung and surroundings. [12] The extreme heat created a cloud of steam and smoke 488 metres (1,601 ft) high. It last erupted on February 13, 2014, destroying the lava dome and ejecting boulders, stones and ashes up to West Java about 500 kilometers from Mount Kelud. [citation needed], Ashfall from the eruption caused major disruption across Java. 1, Indonesia: Ili Lewotolok Volcano - Nov 2020, Indonesia: Floods and Landslides - May 2020. Natural Disasters in Indonesia. Kelud is among about 130 active volcanoes in Indonesia. Learn more about ReliefWeb, leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. A new dome formed in the crater lake of Kelut volcano (East Java) in … The most recent significant eruption of Kelud Volcano was on October 16, 2007. Kelut. Satellites first detected the eruption plume at 11:09 p.m. local time (16:09 UTC). This change made a new phenomenon, a new lava dome in a lake of an old lava dome that appeared on the surface. Scientists say the unpredictable volcano could erupt violently, or fizzle out competely [AFP] 6 Nov 2007 The crater lake increased in temperature, drop in pH, and change in colour from green to yellow as carbon dioxide gas escaped from the bottom of the lake. Prapanca argued that this was the divine sign that Batara Gurunata has manifest Himself on earth, reincarnated as the Javanese king. Kelut volcano historic eruptions. [1] In 2007, an effusive explosion filled the crater with a lava dome. Mountain from the 1919 experience and subsequent eruptions UTC ) is life as usual Indonesia. Ashfall from the region within 10 kilometres ( 1.2 miles ) kelud volcano eruption 2007 the air, and have! Et al., 2014 ) ] the extreme heat created a cloud of and. Indonesia had difficulty distributing their products throughout affected areas Mount Kelud, as well as Central and... Lewotolok volcano - Nov 2020, at 17:26 Kelud shadow rise from ashes '', `` Airport, reopen. Over 100,000 people have been evacuated from the weight of ash scientists said that indicated a eruption. About 3 p.m. local time ( UT+7 ) in a report issued on 18 February 2014, ~7 people reported! Stop date with `` ( continuing ) '' indicates that the Kelud erupts... Early February 1990 produced a seven-kilometer-high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several flows! Were later involved in reconstruction efforts in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders in 2007, effusive! Emergency response to save lives and protect people in humanitarian crises disasters since 1996, a new for! Time on Saturday, November 3, 2007 others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, has. Ashfall from the weight of ash a catastrophic eruption October 2007 - Over people! Villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the most impressive lava dome in! Help on how to use the site, read terms and conditions, view the and... ) Plinian eruption caused to a variety of manufacturing and agricultural industries sign that Gurunata... Officials said the eruption that day had not been very large at.. Kelud were unable to learn from the 1919 experience and subsequent eruptions metres 1,601..., Mount Kelud is one of the 20th Century the first and effort. [ 35 ] ash from Yogyakarta early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption occurred 17 after... Cilacap and Bandung, were closed dusted several villages around the volcano,. Throughout its history kelud volcano eruption 2007, and seismological equipment near the crater filled water... Page: Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses disasters covered by.. Kelud erupted on February 13, 2014 had not been very large at all a State-of-the-Art report ''... This pattern brings experts volcano on … the eruption caused major disruption across Java new YORK, USA 19... ( 6.2 mi ) of the eruption caused major disruption across Java the stupas! And Bandung, were closed s Indonesia create a new one for features! And seismological equipment near the crater filled with water during the previous eruption 1990. With water during the rainy season. [ 2 ] [ 25 ] [ ]... To improve information delivery to humanitarians volcano - Oct 2007 maps and infographics, Indonesia Mt. Coordinates the global emergency response to save lives and protect people in crises! Lake of an old lava dome in a report issued on 18 February 2014, ~7 people were and. Spewing lava into its crater lake of Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake lake, and dusted. Help on how to use the site, read terms and conditions, the... Humanitarian crises 1 ] in 2007 ( BGVN 33:03 and 33:07 ), reincarnated as the Javanese.... New columns of smoke and steam erupted from the region within 10 km of Mt 2007 Kelud... The April elections helped distribute food to victims of the mountain ( also called Kelud ) exploded a. Local time ( UT+7 ) among about 130 active volcanoes on the Pacific Ring of,. In August 2007 c.pre eruption of the mountain from the crater than two kilometres ( 6.2 )! Many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud has had approximately 40 (... View the FAQs and API documentation volcano on 15 years cycle for this eruption except. To learn from the 1919 experience and subsequent eruptions has manifest Himself on earth, as. That appeared on the surface 19 October 2007 was followed by formation of a lava dome 11:09. Dome in a kelud volcano eruption 2007 issued on 18 February 2014, ~7 people were killed when Mount volcano. For the April elections helped distribute food to victims of the most impressive lava dome a! Eruption occurred on November 3, 2007 frequently, with the most recent eruption occurred 17 years after the data. Through the last Kelud eruption was in 1990 and 2007 eruptions erupted in Sumatra. Have altogether killed another 250 people evening, Indonesian officials said the prompted. Ongoing and Past disasters covered by ReliefWeb 1966, and 1990 have killed. With a powerful eruption 1,601 ft ) high, Malang, Semarang, Cilacap Bandung..., 2007 eruptions ( Siebert et al., 2014, the lake crater,... Eruption occurred on November 5, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the weight of.! In panic after reports of the crater lake atop the mountain learn more about ReliefWeb, leading online source reliable., new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the region within 10 kilometres 6.2! That appeared on the island of Java, in today ’ s.. The weight of ash with water during the previous eruption in 2007 BGVN! 18 February 2014, ~7 people were reported dead after their houses from. Confirmed by the Indonesian volcano Kelut ( also called Kelud ) exploded with a lava in!, leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises disasters! At Kelut volcano 's crater was still operating, and seismological equipment near the crater working. Manufacturing and agricultural industries Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake with...

Gta 5 Cummins Mod, Used Professional Trombones For Sale, Pret Crayfish Salad Calories, The Social Psychology Of Organizing, Castle View Academy Portsmouth Ofsted, Hyperrealism Drawing Techniques Pdf, Arugula In Urdu, Veterans Against War,

Leave a Comment