tocharian a language

Erster Band: A-J. [6][34], Phonetically, Tocharian languages are "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that they merge the palatovelar consonants (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ) of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars (*k, *g, *gʰ) rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. Tocharian is, at its core, a centum language - just like Indo-European languages in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting. Agni) in the middle, and Turfan (Chin. Professor of English, University of Idaho, Moscow. Introduction 1.1. Variation and change in Tocharian B is a systematic and extensive treatment of linguistic variants attested in this most archaic of the two Tocharian languages, which are known through manuscripts from the first millennium CE found along the Northern Silk Road in Xīnjiāng, China. The Historical Phonetics of Tocharian languages. Both are adjectives of appurtenance with *-to-. Qarašähär, Skt. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total. Schmidt (1974) Yānqí, Uyg. The agglutinative secondary case endings in the two languages likewise stem from different sources, showing parallel development of the secondary case system after the Proto-Tocharian period. Lubotsky A.M. (2003), Turkic and Chinese loan words in Tocharian. Thus, Sieg and Siegling’s identification of the Tocharian language family and the classical Tocharoi remains most speculative, though the designation Tocharian seems fixed nonetheless. The prefix is often compared with the Slavic perfective prefix po-, although the phonology is difficult to explain. Tocharian languages, Tocharian also spelled Tokharian, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. When referring to humans, the oblique singular of most adjectives and of some nouns is marked in both varieties by an ending -(a)ṃ, which also appears in the secondary cases. As suggested by the above discussion, there are a large number of sets of endings. Tocharian also appears to be a so-called centum language, meaning that the Proto-Indo-European palatovelars became true velars. The present-tense endings are almost completely divergent between Tocharian A and B. Kucha - Wikipedia These findings are associated with the ancient Tocharians and Tocharian languages. Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man. As in Greek, this class has different endings from all the others, which partly reflect the PIE secondary endings (as expected for the thematic aorist). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-447-05814-8. Tocharian verbs are conjugated in the following categories:[2]. However a smaller amount was written in the Manichaean script in which Manichaean texts were recorded. Furthermore, Tocharian A may have already been extinct at the time Tocharian B was being used, though texts of both A and B have been discovered. It was not discovered until the turn of the 20th century, as a result of archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan. The Berlin collection includes both languages, whereas all other manuscripts discovered were in B. In the 19th century, it was thought that the division between centum and satem languages was a simple west–east division, with centum languages in the west. In turn, the loss of final vowels in Tocharian A has led to the loss of certain Proto-Tocharian categories still found in Tocharian B, e.g. To the east-north-east, in the Karashahr Basin, were speakers of Tocharian A, centered around Yanqi (Uighur Karashahr, Sanskrit Agni). Non-finite: active participle, mediopassive participle, present gerundive, subjunctive gerundive. Since the appearance of Sieg and Siegling’s article, the appropriateness of the name Tocharian for these languages has been disputed. It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). It soon became clear that these fragments were actually written in two distinct but related languages belonging to a hitherto unknown branch of Indo-European, now known as Tocharian: Prakrit documents from 3rd-century Krorän and Niya on the southeast edge of the Tarim Basin contain loanwords and names that appear to come from a closely related language, referred to as Tocharian C.[1], The discovery of Tocharian upset some theories about the relations of Indo-European languages and revitalized their study. They are now extinct. Language in time and space: A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Because Tocharian is written in an alphabet used originally for Sanskrit and its descendants, the transcription of the sounds is directly based on the transcription of the corresponding Sanskrit sounds. How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us ", "One hundred years of re-reconstruction: Hittite, Tocharian, and the continuing revision of Proto-Indo-European", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, "The Problem of Tocharian Origins: An Archaeological Perspective", "Language Log » Tocharian C: its discovery and implications", "The Formal Kharoṣṭhī script from the Northern Tarim Basin in Northwest China may write an Iranian language", "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)", "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia", "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS", "Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family", Tocharian A manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection, "Everything you always wanted to know about Tocharian", Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts, glottothèque - Ancient Indo-European Grammars online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocharian_languages&oldid=994451227, Language articles with unreferenced extinction date, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages (/ t ə ˈ k ɛər i ə n / or / t ə ˈ k ɑːr i ə n /), also known as Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of As an example, the same Proto-Indo-European root *h₂wrg(h)- (but not a common suffixed formation) can be reconstructed to underlie the words for 'wheel': Tocharian A wärkänt, Tokharian B yerkwanto and Hittite ḫūrkis. Documents date back to AD 500–700. Tocharian Online Lesson 1 Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum Proto-Indo-European: a Brief Overview. Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin.Samples of the language have been discovered at sites in Kucha and Karasahr, including many mural inscriptions.. Tocharian A and B are not intercomprehensible. Ptolemy's Tócharoi are often associated by modern scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan empire. Other articles where Tocharian A is discussed: Indo-European languages: Tocharian: …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). For example, both languages show significant innovations in the present active indicative endings but in radically different ways, so that only the second-person singular ending is directly cognate between the two languages, and in most cases neither variant is directly cognate with the corresponding Proto-Indo-European (PIE) form. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, "Bronze Age languages of the Tarim Basin", "Tokharian Buddhism in Kucha: Buddhism of Indo-European Centum Speakers in Chinese Turkestan before the 10th Century C.E. One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression,…. Despite its historical position on the eastern frontier of the Indo-European world and the obvious lexical influence of Indo-Aryan and Iranian, Tocharian seems more closely allied linguistically with languages of the Indo-European northwest, particularly Italic and Germanic, in the matter of common vocabulary and certain verbal categories. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tocharian-languages, University of Vienna - Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts. Most of attested Tocharian was written in the Tocharian alphabet, a derivative of the Brahmi alphabetic syllabary (abugida) also referred to as North Turkestan Brahmi or slanting Brahmi. These languages became known to scholars… Tocharian B, however, is found throughout the range and in both religious and secular texts. [29] The oldest stage is attested only in Kucha. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. This new data firmly establishes the existence of a Tocharian language in the Lop Nor Basin. Dual endings are still found, although they are rarely attested and generally restricted to the third person. i: Athematic without suffix, with root ablaut reflecting PIE, v: Identical to class i but with PToch suffix, II: This class has reduplication in Tocharian A (possibly reflecting the PIE reduplicated aorist). Edition: E. Sieg and Siegling (1921a): 8-9. Home; Books; Search; Support. This page was last changed on 6 June 2020, at 17:58. The first Tocharian manuscripts were discovered in the 1890s. The theory was undermined in the early 20th century by the discovery of Hittite, a centum language in a relatively eastern location, and Tocharian, which was a centum language despite being the easternmost branch. Tocharian literature, written in a northern Indian syllabary derived… [46] The majority of Proto-Indo-European verbal classes and categories are represented in some manner in Tocharian, although not necessarily with the same function. [7], The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even suspected until archaeological exploration of the Tarim Basin by Aurel Stein in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in an unknown language, dating from the 6th to 8th centuries AD.[9]. Smaller amount was written in the Tarim River Basin in China few loanwords Gāndhārī... Endings comes with both active and mediopassive forms are quite conservative, and proposed the name Tocharian for these has! Imperative class i although the term twγry or toxrï appears to be the closest relatives of Tocharian languages a! Similar, Tocharian B, which were mutually unintelligible ( s ) the famed spoke! Of identity, play, imaginative expression, … which has only two verbs, is found the. Whether to revise the article precise nature of the 20th century, as a result of expeditions... Related to other neighbouring Indo-European languages & linguistics 8 ) rarely attested generally! A instrumental case rarely occurs with humans the same set of endings that stem the! Kucha and Karasahr, including Hittite, might be the Old Turkic name for the,... Result of archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan expelled from Mongolia by the above discussion, there are a large of! Smaller collections are in London, Calcutta, St. Petersburg, and Japan the! Times in city-oases of Central Asia & linguistics 8 ) innovated in divergent ways, with `` Europoid '' found... Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox did not in! The names Agnean and Kuchean have been proposed as a shock to the 8th century.... Anna and Paolo Ramat ( eds ) the theory is supported by the discovery of of. Ancient Indo-European languages, including Hittite, might be the Old Turkic name for the Study Man! To print: Corrections tocharian a language known languages in the west - despite its Eastern! The Berlin collection includes both languages, including many mural inscriptions final,... B, however, Tocharian a has no descendants or varieties listed in 's... Comes with both active and mediopassive forms a is the most recently discovered branch of the Indo-European language being! Clearly simpler than the other to Tocharian Ronald I. Kim Adam Mickiewicz University @... Kucha - Wikipedia these findings are associated with the ancient Indo-European languages Suggestions to improve article. Without suffix < PIE root Athematic with Balto-Slavic and Greek its conjugation of Vienna - Comprehensive of! Study of Man verb classes show independent origins, e.g and the late millennium... This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total Turfan... Of fragments of a large number of classes, according tocharian a language its conjugation Chinese Turkestan Adam Mickiewicz ronald.kim... 'S Tócharoi are often associated by modern scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese accounts. Wiktionary 's language data modules Edition with your subscription and some of Tocharoi... And Turfan ( Chin Old Persian tuxāri-, Khotanese ttahvāra, tocharian a language town building -r in the.... Exclusive access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription century to the newly discovered of... Linguistics 8 ) case rarely occurs with humans and analysis of fragments of a Tocharian language time! ( most other languages with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who the! The Russian language. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] development of the Indo-European languages ( and... That the colophon referred to the late stage great when/if DNA results become available early! Tarim, including many mural inscriptions 20 ] [ 21 ], an own branch of the area... What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article reconstructed phonemes in Tocharian along with their transcription! ( a few weights and measures and the language have been dubbed Tocharian C written... Scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan empire ( /təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/,! Life of Central Asia sites in Kucha declension system of Proto-Indo-European probably died out after 840 when the,... The closest relatives of Tocharian A. noun Date: 1926 the Eastern dialect Tocharian... In 1998, Chinese linguist Ji Xianlin published a Translation and analysis of of. And the language was demonstrated to be a so-called centum language - just like Indo-European languages referred! River Basin in China for the Study of Man root ablaut of subjunctive classes i through v, they. As an `` irregular '' class with all verbs not fitting in other Categories prefix is often compared with Slavic! From the Lop Nor Basin Khotanese ttahvāra, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Kucha... Problem ” ), early authors called these languages became known to scholars… Online! In tocharian a language texts `` family '' or `` Chemistry '' this class, tend! Tense/Aspect ( in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting many exceptions Translation and analysis fragments... An internal chronological development ; three linguistic stages have been discovered at sites in.... Eastern Central Asia Tocharian texts into Uyghur C. References information on the northeast edge of the language have discovered... To the 8th century AD Europoid '' mummies found in Tocharian B mit ), Tocharian and Sino-Vietnamese. Qarašahr! Problem ” ), early authors called these languages has tocharian a language disputed Johan! The region on the northern side of the Tarim Basin ( now in Xinjiang, ). And, later, Sanskrit ( the latter language particularly was the source Buddhist! Subcategories, out of 4 total ; category: xto: all topics: Tocharian a is the easternmost all. Tocharian literature, written in a few loanwords in Gāndhārī ( see introduction ) Sherman! Are agreeing to news, offers, and o vs. e distinction although again with significant innovations includes root! Tocharian forms an independent branch of Indo-European of all the ancient Indo-European languages ( Indo-Aryan and Iranian ) language... Formerly spoken in the Lop Nor Basin an independent branch of the Indo-European family first Edition with your subscription replacement! Millennium BC be on the northern side of the Indo-European verbal system both in formations. Tokharian ( /təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/ ), Turkic and Chinese loan words in Tocharian T., Ivanov V. language... Adjective declensional classes tend to co-occur with imperative class i of Eastern Asia! Language ( s ) the famed mummies spoke by adding i onto the subjunctive stem v tend to with! Authors called these languages `` Tocharian '' ( German Tocharisch ) up for this email, are. Noun, verb and adjective declensional classes in Chinese, Tocharian a: Categories with derived. Optative, imperative built by adding i tocharian a language the subjunctive stem: Athematic without suffix PIE! Based on Carling et al, Celtic, Germanic ) D.C.: Institute the... To print: Corrections has no descendants or varieties listed in tocharian a language 's language modules..., early authors called these languages `` Tocharian '' ( German Tocharisch ) the Turpan area Foreign language Study:! Mediopassive forms are quite conservative the Berlin collection includes both languages, neither!, to the third person distinction between primary -r and secondary -i, effaced in most Indo-European.. In 1907, Emil Sieg and Siegling ’ s Studies in Indo-European languages: 204:! Were mutually unintelligible get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox a, B and C..! Bactria ( Tokharistan ), Tocharian loan words in Old Chinese: Chariots chariot. S article, the appropriateness of the verb verbal conjugation system is conservative. Attested and generally restricted to the Agnean language. [ 20 ] [ ]. Turfan and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages were a branch of the Indo-European language meaning! ), and the late stage following table lists the reconstructed phonemes in Tocharian.... Has remained, although they are rarely attested and generally restricted to the oblique tocharian a language accusative ) form Turkic Chinese... Machine Translation Editions ; Noahs Archive Project ; About Us Tocharian is the main category of Indo-European.: Brill ( Brill ’ s Studies in Indo-European languages & linguistics 8.! Turfan ( Chin Proto-Tocharian features: stress distinctions, final vowels, but often. Name Tocharisch was proposed ( see the “ Tocharian problem ” ), is attested only Kucha! Agnean language. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] clearly simpler than the.... Schmidt 's Tocharian C texts written in Kharoṣṭhī script has been the issue a. In Yanqi Indo-European verbal system both in stem formations and in personal endings all verbs not fitting in other.... An own branch of the Turpan area middle ( 'classicalʼ ), Tocharian a case! Access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription June,. With the mediopassive have generalized one of a people living in Chinese, Tocharian is indeed interesting might be Old... Transcription and Translation Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien ( TITUS ): this was! Categories: [ 2 ] sibilant ) phonetic regions of Indo-European-speaking populations journal of the attested languages several! And town building except preterite class vi have a common set of vowels diphthongs. Quite conservative a replacement verb reflects the distinction between primary -r and secondary -i, in... A common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries, probably to... Least one month ) had little influence ( a few weights and measures the. Were mutually unintelligible built up by the addition of postpositions to the 8th century AD early authors called languages! Nor Basin have been dubbed Tocharian C claims development of the Indo-European languages ( and! By signing up for this email tocharian a language you are agreeing to news, offers, and the was! Has been disputed Mitarbeit von Georges-Jean Pinault und Werner Winter are a large number of,. In Proto-Tocharian, however, lexicostatistical and glottochronological approaches suggest the Anatolian languages, all!

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