pennsylvania native trees
Trees dominate the landscape and provide habitat structure for a multitude of other plants, animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms, thereby protecting biological diversity. During the railroad logging era, technology was present not only to harvest vast areas but also to utilize everything regardless of species or size. Never needs cutting unless to tidy. Forests and the trees and other species that comprise them are constantly changing systems. Fencing to exclude deer is now a standard practice on state forest lands when timber is harvested; this is necessary to allow new trees to become established and grow beyond the browse line (the height deer can reach). As early successional species modify the environment by increasing the organic matter and shading the forest floor, more shade tolerant species invade. Black walnut is one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring and one of the first to lose its leaves in the fall. 494 Harvest Drive Rockwood, PA 15557 : 15-20' Color: Yellow Bloom: April-May Plant Community: A Young trees-distinctive striped bark: Sugar Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Full/Part Hgt. Early lumbering—Tall, straight, and suitable for masts for ships, the eastern white pine was the first large-scale target of waves of loggers who assaulted Pennsylvania's forests. They protect the soil and facilitate ground water recharge by reducing runoff and erosion. Forest SuccessionWith few exceptions, rainfall, temperature, and soil conditions are suitable for the growth of trees throughout Pennsylvania. The “white oak group” includes all oaks without bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that ripen in one season. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. Some particularly attractive varieties are the: Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) with its bright pink burst of color in spring; Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is showy in the fall with brilliant red leaves. Deer have consumed the lower layers of vegetation including tree seedlings and saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous species. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. What is a Tree?Growth—Wood—Bark—Growth patterns—Short shoots and long shoots—JuvenilityLeaves—Fall leaf colorRoots—Root partnersFlowers, fruits, and seeds—ConifersAngiospermsPollination—-Seed dispersalClonal growth, Chapter 2. Audubon Pennsylvania . You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. Pennsylvania is host to one national forest; the Allegheny National Forest contains just over half a million acres. It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. Congratulations to Pete … Trees are primarily identified by three things: their leaves, seeds, and bark. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. A Brief History of Penn's WoodsThe land that greeted the earliest Europeans to arrive in Pennsylvania was primarily forested, broken only by rivers, occasional wetlands, and clearings associated with Native American villages. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. However, that forest is a fairly recent product of the geological evolution of Pennsylvania's landscape. The first European settlers found extensive clearings created by Native Americans in the Cumberland Valley, Penns Valley in Centre County, and the Wyoming Valley, as well as other sites. The major forest types are northern hardwood forest, oak-hickory forest, Great Lakes beech-maple forest, and mixed mesophytic forest. Quercus rubra. PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Learn More about PNPS. Height: 8-16". Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. Others including corktree, bee-bee tree, callery pear, and mimosa are just beginning to show invasive tendencies. Fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in bogs and lake sediments all across the eastern half of North America, as well as many of the earliest written observations, record wide-scale use of fire by Native Americans to manage their landscape. Paw Paws are taprooted plants that transplant most successfully while dormant or nearly so. flowering dogwood 5. Pennsylvania Trees Objective for this presentation: ... Eastern Native Americans made a flour from them. Wood not needed for fuel or building material was often burned early in the process of clearing the land; after all, there was a seemingly unlimited supply. Pennsylvania native trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, seeds. While those are the most common trees of Pennsylvania there are dozens of trees you will likely see in a walk in the woods. We didn’t want to stop there! Historically, the tree's lumber was important in making whiskey barrels and in ship building. The term climax forest was formerly used to describe the late successional stages of forest development. . Oak and other hardwoods are also important. Native Trees and Shrubs for Pennsylvania Properties. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. Inflorescence red-purple in very early spring. Native American populations were much larger before contact with Europeans introduced smallpox and other diseases; the extent of land impacted by their management was large. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, and often planted for ornamental purposes in open spaces. River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. In addition to 2.1 million acres of state forests, Pennsylvania's publicly owned forest lands include another 277,000 acres in 116 state parks. Hemlock logs were cut and the bark stripped off and hauled to tanneries located in many parts of the state near the source of bark. A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. Understory trees include flowering dogwood, pawpaw, umbrella magnolia, redbud, and witch-hazel. Pennsylvania native plants are plants that thrived in the area before settlement. Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak and sassafras. In the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state, in areas covered by ice during the most recent glaciation, peat deposits support forests with a northern character dominated by black spruce and tamarack. Too many deer—Over-abundant deer are a serious threat to the health of forests throughout the state. Spreads by underground stolons and self-sows. Influence of Native AmericansThe popular notion that European explorers and early settlers found a primeval forest free of human influence is inaccurate. The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. We propagate and grow more than 80 species of perennial plants from local seed we collect in the wild. A colonial shrub species, grows from 3’ to 15’ tall, prefers full sun, low drought tolerance, blooms from April to July, white flowers, produces pear shaped red fruit that per- sists into winter. Initially open land will be colonized by species such as eastern red cedar, tuliptree, aspens, or red maple that grow well in the high light conditions of open fields. In the southeastern corner of the state, in a narrow sliver of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province that parallels the Delaware River, coastal plain forests contain sweetgum, willow oak, southern red oak, and sweetbay magnolia. Trees came back not only on cutover lands, but also on abandoned farmland; today, second growth forests cover 59 percent of the state's land area. A grass substitute for dry, shady areas under trees. The Pennsylvania Native Plant Society advocates conservation of native plants and their habitats and promotes the increased use of native plants in the landscape. Allegheny plum and pumpkin ash have been recommended for endangered status. Sumac fruit is included, Article and photo courtesy of Karen Smith. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Elders of the Lenni Lenape tribe have certified the tree has been venerated for 480+ years. The railroad logging era, as it is known, allowed loggers to reach the vast interior of the state's forests. Like other green plants they utilize carbon dioxide and produce oxygen and sugars. Wild black cherry reaches its best development in this zone, especially in the northwestern part of the state. Platanus occidentalis . Doc ID: 1737092 Doc Name: sf-PSU TreeID Program.pdf; Error Message: Beginning in the 1760s, white pine logs 120 feet long and 4 feet in diameter (or larger) were cut in the hills of northeastern Pennsylvania, fastened together in huge rafts, and floated down the Delaware River to Philadelphia to provide masts for British ships. Mar 16, 2018 - Explore Diana Silvestri's board "Native Plants Pennsylvania", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. You are being redirected to the DCNR eLibrary. The tree's acorns were made into a flour by Native Americans and are an important food source for wildlife. Beech, sugar maple, and hemlock are so-called late successional trees because of their ability to grow and reproduce in low light conditions. It can be used as an accent plant or as a backdrop for small flowering trees. Fourteen other smaller fragments are preserved in state forests or state parks. The Tionesta Scenic and Natural Area in Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania includes the only sizable tract of old growth forest that remains in the state. Fagus grandifolia. American beech 4. State and federal officials want to stop it, and they’ve spent about $20 million this year on research and eradication efforts. The resulting scenes of devastation generated concern by groups throughout the state and led to the formation of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association. Major Forest TypesPennsylvania's climate, rainfall, and soil fertility support forest growth throughout most of the state with the exception of areas that are too wet or too rocky. The Great Lakes beech-sugar maple forest is represented at the western end of the state. This tree loves cool swamps, wet woods and bottomlands throughout Pennsylvania. Beech bark disease, which appeared in Nova Scotia about 1920, is still spreading across the northern half of the state reducing beech to groves of young sapling-size root shoots. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. Only a few fragments remain of the original forest. Pennsylvania's Forest HeritageA brief history of Penn's WoodsCutting down the trees—Early lumbering—The "Great Clearcut"The forest todayToo many deerImpact of pests and diseasesNative versus introduced speciesRare speciesForest successionMajor forest typesThe value of trees, Chapter 3. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests are dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common. white oak 2. Revealingly, later travelers in these same regions described a forested landscape apparently due to successional growth. This medium-sized tree is favored for its uniform, upright growth. Additionally, 1,300 non-native species exist throughout the state. Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. Native PA Species TREES for Stormwater Management in Erie County. In addition, at least 21 large native shrubs sometimes grow to tree size and form. The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains beech, birch, sugar maple, hemlock, and white pine in the canopy. Home; About; Contact; Our Plants. Today many of the old railroad beds are the basis for a network of hiking trails. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. Rail beds were constructed up every hollow, far into forests unreachable when proximity to water was necessary to transport the logs to markets. A campaign led by Dr. Joseph Rothrock, resulted in the formation of a Division of Forestry within the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture in 1895 and the appointment of Dr. Rothrock as the first Forestry Commissioner. Others, such as chestnut and butternut, have become rare through the impact of insects or diseases. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. Oak forests dominate the southern two-thirds of the state. Combining plants that grow well in the same natural habitats will help create healthy, vigorous plantings. In Pennsylvania, the clearing for farming and cutting trees for commercial uses that began with the first European arrivals had, by 1900, reduced the forest cover from 90-95 percent of the land area to 32 percent. 4 | Pennsylvania Native Trees and Shrubs Lancaster County Planning Commission Terms Alluvium soil: loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock), or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. Wood products including barrel staves, lath, shingles, boxes, and kindling wood were produced in hastily built factories located in temporary towns that sprang up throughout the northern tier of Pennsylvania. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. The most recent invader, hemlock woolly adelgid, is killing our state tree the Canadian hemlock in southern and eastern parts of the state. We are an all volunteer, member based, non-profit organization. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. The gypsy moth, which spread into the state following its accidental release in eastern Massachusetts in 1869, reduced the importance of oaks through preferential feeding on members of the genus Quercus. However, current interpretation is to view the forest as a constantly shifting mosaic of patches created by individual tree falls and other small-scale change. Pennsylvania Sedge (Carex pensylvanica) - PART TO FULL SHADE. Fall foliage red to red orange. Part to full shade. Other accounts describe extensive grasslands and gallery-type forests in which one could "drive a carriage unhindered," apparently the product of Native Americans' regular use of fire to manage the landscape. The cooling effect from transpiration and shading add to our comfort. One hundred and thirty five species of trees are considered native to Pennsylvania. Sixty-two distinct tree-dominated natural community types have been described for Pennsylvania. Today, it is not unusual to come across old charcoal hearths, level areas about 40 feet in diameter, scattered throughout the forests in areas where charcoal making occurred. Pennsylvania's location spanning 40 degrees - 42 degrees north latitude and its varied terrain support 108 species of native trees and many other introduced from Europe and Asia. The Value of TreesThe ecological importance of forests and trees to the well-being of the state is enormous. Sort Guide order; Alphabetical by display name; Alphabetical by scientific name; Grid Card. Apr 4, 2015 - Explore Lynn's board "Native plants of Pennsylvania", followed by 211 people on Pinterest. A small tree can bring beauty and diversity into your yard while taking up very little space. American sycamore 3. Most of Pennsylvania’s forest lands fall into two types: Mixed oak forests cover about 54 percent of the commonwealth -- mostly in the south -- and include trees such as northern red oak, chestnut oak, shagbark hickory, red maple, and tulip poplar. Black or “Swamp” Ash. Red maple is a moderately fast-growing Pennsylvania-native shade tree best known for its brilliant red (sometimes red/gold) fall foliage. How to identify trees Identification Keys, GlossaryAppendixTree ListsNative Trees that are Important Food Sources for Moths and ButterfliesSmall to Moderate-size Native Trees with Conspicuous FlowersNative Trees with Edible FruitsEndangered, Threatened, and Rare Trees of PennsylvaniaNative Early Successional Trees (sun-loving)Native Trees of Riparian ForestsNative Wetland TreesTrees that are at or Near the Southern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Northern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Eastern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Trees Listed by Family, Chapter 2. You probably even see these in your own yard and don’t even know it. See more ideas about plants, native plants, perennials. Dutch elm disease and dogwood anthracnose have taken their toll. Menu. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? Their banana like fruits add interest to the landscape. Trees provide a renewable source of lumber, paper, nuts and chemicals. In areas near early iron furnaces, colliers cut trees (preferably oak or chestnut) and stacked them in conical piles built in the woods. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. The 6- to 9-inch-long leaves are a glossy green on top and pale green underneath. What wasn't usable as lumber was treated by slow heating and distillation in "chemical factories" that produced acetate of lime, wood alcohol, wood tar, charcoal, and gases. The Forest TodayDespite dire predictions of Rothrock and others, Pennsylvania's forests did recover in the years following the great clearcut. An iron furnace required 20,000-35,000 acres of forest to support it on a sustainable basis. Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. Appears as a tuft of grass. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles Don’t worry if you see beetles on the flowers – they are the only pollinators who will visit. Quercus alba. Full-Part Sun; Full-Part Shade; Shrubs & Trees; Shrubs & Trees. Old photographs record the boom days at Masten, Golinza, Laquin, and many other sites that today are only names on a map, a few old foundations, or perhaps the site of a hunting camp. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. The most valuable single product is black cherry, which is used mainly for veneer in the furniture industry. State game lands, administered by the Pennsylvania Game Commission, contain another 1.4 million acres in the public domain. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, there are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. There are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania's oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut's shift from widespread canopy dominant to minor status within just a few decades. 2004 | 416 pages | Cloth $59.95 Botany / Ecology/Environmental Studies View main book page, Chapter 1. Charcoal making was another forest industry that thrived before the discovery of coal as a fuel. Rare SpeciesThe abundance of individual tree species varies greatly from those that are found throughout the state in a variety of habitats such as red maple, beech, and red oak, to those that are very limited in their occurrence. As the ice receded, species that had found refuge farther south gradually returned. More non-native plants are introduced every year. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. The state distribution maps in the species info boxes below are from the USDA NRCS PLANTS Database at plants.usda.gov.In instances where state specific maps are unavailable, the US distribution map will be used in its place. northern red oak 1. Heart's Content, also in the Allegheny National Forest, has 100 acres of old growth hemlock-white pine forest. ISA Certified Arborist® Cutting Down the TreesAs European settlers claimed the land, taming the wilderness meant cutting down trees and eradicating some forest wildlife, especially large predators, in order to make room for farms, towns, and villages and to assure the safety of pioneer families and their livestock. In turn, trees that have National champion potential will be forwarded to American Forests. The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. Here are some of the most common trees of Pennsylvania. An introduced or non-native plant is one that has been brought into the state to become established in the wild. Moist rich acidic soils. The piles of logs were covered with earth and burned to produce charcoal that was then hauled by wagon to the iron works. Some of them such as Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, and empress-tree have seriously impacted remnant forests in urban and suburban areas. Charcoal making utilized small trees and could be done on a 25-year rotation in most areas. The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. .". We consider the flora present at the time Europeans arrived in North America as the species native to the eastern United States. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. Some of the same trees that are native to Delaware can also be found in Pennsylvania, as we are close neighbors. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, there are 134 native and 62 introduced species of trees found in the state. Plant two for better fruit set. Some native species such as umbrella magnolia and American holly are frequently cultivated and sometimes spread into nearby woodlands from cultivated sources, making a determination of their true status more difficult. Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. The oak-dominated forests that persist today, and native grasslands, most of which disappeared soon after Native Americans were ousted from the land, almost certainly owe their existence to traditions of large-scale burning among some groups of people for centuries or thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Four other tree species, short-leaf pine and three hawthorns, have been recommended for listing but a specific status has not yet been determined. These forests contain tuliptree, sugar maple, beech, basswood, red oak, cucumber-tree, yellow buckeye, Ohio buckeye, white ash, and black cherry. Small scale garden/ landscape design and … The famous Revolutionary War frigate USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” was made of White oak. Settlers found a primeval forest free of human influence is inaccurate reach 80 to 1,000 feet high swamp along! 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